Anti-heterosexism

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This article addresses two questions: first, what challenges South African society presents to the teaching of anti-heterosexism, and secondly, what elements of. Yolanda Dreyer, professor of practical theology at University of Pretoria, has stated that "Heterosexism leads to. J Homosex. ;66(1) doi: / Epub Nov Amnestic Heterosexism and Bystander Responses to Anti-Gay.

This article explores the notion of 'risk' and the consequences of both 'taking risks' or 'not taking risks' in doing anti-homophobia (or. POLICY ON ANTI-HOMOPHOBIA AND ANTI-HETEROSEXISM. (see also Policy , , , , , , , , , ,. Doing Anti-homophobia and Anti-heterosexism in Early Childhood Education: moving beyond the immobilising impacts of 'risks', 'fears' and. 'silences'. Can We​.

This article addresses two questions: first, what challenges South African society presents to the teaching of anti-heterosexism, and secondly, what elements of. This article explores the notion of 'risk' and the consequences of both 'taking risks' or 'not taking risks' in doing anti-homophobia (or. AdjectiveEdit. anti-heterosexist (comparative more anti-heterosexist, superlative most anti-heterosexist). Opposed to heterosexism.






Definitions: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Sexual Prejudice. People with homosexual or bisexual orientations have long been stigmatized. With the rise of the gay political movement anti-hetrosexism the late s, however, homosexuality's condemnation as immoral, criminal, and sick came under increasing scrutiny.

When the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis inthe question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals began to receive serious scientific consideration.

George Weinberg from and Society's rethinking of sexual orientation was crystallized anti-heterosezism the term homophobiawhich heterosexual psychologist George Weinberg coined in the late s.

Weinberg used homophobia to label heterosexuals' dread of anti-heterosexism in close quarters with homosexuals as well as homosexuals' self loathing. The word first appeared in print in and was subsequently discussed at length in Weinberg's book, Society and the Healthy Homosexual.

The American Heritage Dictionary edition defines homophobia as "aversion to gay or anti-heterosexism people or their lifestyle or culture" and "behavior or an act based on this aversion. Around the same time, heterosexism began to be anti-hrterosexism as a term analogous to sexism and racism, describing an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship, or community Herek, Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment and other forms of prejudice, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism.

Anti-heterosexism institutional racism and sexism, heterosexism pervades societal customs and institutions.

It operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack. Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are anti-heterosexism to attack by society. Examples of heterosexism in the United Anti-heterisexism include the continuing ban against lesbian and gay military personnel; widespread lack of legal protection from antigay discrimination in employment, housing, and services; hostility to lesbian and gay committed relationships, recently dramatized by passage of federal and state laws against same-gender marriage; and the existence of sodomy laws in more than one-third anti-heterosexism the states.

Although usage of the two anti-heterosexism has not been uniform, homophobia has typically been employed to describe individual antigay attitudes anti-heterosexism behaviors whereas heterosexism has referred to societal-level ideologies and patterns of institutionalized oppression of non-heterosexual people.

By drawing popular and scientific attention to antigay hostility, the creation of these terms marked a watershed. Nevertheless, they have important limitations. Critics have observed that homophobia is problematic for at antu-heterosexism two reasons. First, znti-heterosexism research does anti-hetdrosexism indicate that heterosexuals' antigay attitudes can reasonably be considered a phobia in the clinical sense.

Second, using homophobia implies that antigay prejudice is an individual, clinical entity rather than a social phenomenon rooted in cultural ideologies and intergroup relations. Moreover, a phobia is usually experienced as dysfunctional and unpleasant.

Antigay prejudice, however, is often highly functional for the heterosexuals who manifest it. As antigay attitudes have become increasingly central to conservative anti-hrterosexism and religious ideologies since the s, these limitations have become more problematic.

However, heterosexismwith its historic macro-level focus on anti-heterosexism ideologies rather than individual attitudes, is not a anti-heterosexsim replacement for homophobia. Sexual Prejudice. Scientific analysis of the psychology of antigay attitudes will be facilitated by a anti-heterosexism term. Anti-heterosexism prejudice serves this purpose nicely. Broadly conceived, sexual prejudice refers to all negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.

Given the current social organization of sexuality, however, such prejudice is almost always directed at people who engage in homosexual behavior or label themselves gay, lesbian, or bisexual Herek, Like other types of prejudice, sexual prejudice has three principal features: It anti-heterosecism an attitude i. It is directed at a social group and its members. It is negative, involving hostility or dislike. First, sexual prejudice anti-hteerosexism a descriptive term. Unlike homophobia, it conveys no a priori assumptions about the anti-hetersexism, dynamics, and underlying motivations of antigay attitudes.

Second, the term explicitly links the study of antigay hostility with the rich tradition of social psychological research on prejudice. Third, using the construct of sexual prejudice does not require value judgments that antigay attitudes anti-heterrosexism inherently irrational or evil. Herek, G. The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological anti-heterosexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Anti-ueterosexism Science, 9 anti-heterosexjsm, Fear of male homosexuality: Cardiac responses of low and high homonegative males.

Are some groups of people more prejudiced than others? Herek, Ph. All rights reserved.

When the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis in , the question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals began to receive serious scientific consideration.

George Weinberg from and Society's rethinking of sexual orientation was crystallized in the term homophobia , which heterosexual psychologist George Weinberg coined in the late s. Weinberg used homophobia to label heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals as well as homosexuals' self loathing.

The word first appeared in print in and was subsequently discussed at length in Weinberg's book, Society and the Healthy Homosexual. The American Heritage Dictionary edition defines homophobia as "aversion to gay or homosexual people or their lifestyle or culture" and "behavior or an act based on this aversion.

Around the same time, heterosexism began to be used as a term analogous to sexism and racism, describing an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship, or community Herek, Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment and other forms of prejudice, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism.

Like institutional racism and sexism, heterosexism pervades societal customs and institutions. It operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack. Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are subject to attack by society. Examples of heterosexism in the United States include the continuing ban against lesbian and gay military personnel; widespread lack of legal protection from antigay discrimination in employment, housing, and services; hostility to lesbian and gay committed relationships, recently dramatized by passage of federal and state laws against same-gender marriage; and the existence of sodomy laws in more than one-third of the states.

Although usage of the two words has not been uniform, homophobia has typically been employed to describe individual antigay attitudes and behaviors whereas heterosexism has referred to societal-level ideologies and patterns of institutionalized oppression of non-heterosexual people. By drawing popular and scientific attention to antigay hostility, the creation of these terms marked a watershed. Nevertheless, they have important limitations. Critics have observed that homophobia is problematic for at least two reasons.

First, empirical research does not indicate that heterosexuals' antigay attitudes can reasonably be considered a phobia in the clinical sense. Second, using homophobia implies that antigay prejudice is an individual, clinical entity rather than a social phenomenon rooted in cultural ideologies and intergroup relations.

Moreover, a phobia is usually experienced as dysfunctional and unpleasant. Antigay prejudice, however, is often highly functional for the heterosexuals who manifest it. As antigay attitudes have become increasingly central to conservative political and religious ideologies since the s, these limitations have become more problematic.

However, heterosexism , with its historic macro-level focus on cultural ideologies rather than individual attitudes, is not a satisfactory replacement for homophobia. Sexual Prejudice. As a result, schools, hospitals, and correctional facilities can act as a showcase for heterosexist attitudes in various ways.

First, schools may implement these attitudes and ideas through unequal and inconsistent disciplinary actions. One such example is meting out harsher punishment to a same-sex couple violating the school ground rules while allowing a heterosexual couple to pass with an easier and more subtle disciplinary action for an equal or identical violation.

Also, hospitals may limit patient visiting only to immediate family, i. Heterosexism affects the family in several ways. For example, in many countries around the world, same-sex marriage is not allowed, so non-heterosexual persons must remain unmarried or enter into heterosexual marriage. Psychologists have aimed to measure heterosexism using various methods. One particular method involves the use of a Likert scale.

However, since heterosexism is perceived as something that is unseen it is difficult to determine if someone is heterosexist based on a self-report method.

Researchers, thus, have constructed implicit measurements of heterosexism. An example of this would be an Implicit Association Test. A popular implicit association test measuring heterosexism that is open to the public is a virtual laboratory called Project Implicit.

Individuals are more likely to be aware of homophobic tendencies rather than heterosexist views, thus, researchers often measure homophobia instead of heterosexism. Research on heterosexism has focused on variables that may affect views of heterosexism. For instance, in a study by psychologist, Gregory M. Herek , it was found that there was a gender difference between heterosexual attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Another notable finding of Herek's study was that heterosexual males showed a greater tendency to demonstrate hostility towards gay men rather than lesbians.

This type of heterosexism includes anti-gay laws, policies, and institutional practices, harassment based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; stereotyping , discriminatory language and discourse, and other forms of discrimination against LGBT persons such as:. This form of heterosexism operates through invisibility, under-representation, and erasure.

It includes:. Heterosexism causes a range of effects on people of any sexual orientation. However, the main effects of heterosexism are marginalization, and anti-LGBT violence and abuse.

The main effect of heterosexism is the marginalization of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals within society. Heterosexism has led to stigmatization and persecution of not only these people but also those of other sexual diversity such as transgender, and transsexual people. Along with homophobia , lesbophobia , and internalized homophobia , heterosexism continues to be a significant social reality that compels people to conceal their homosexual or bisexual orientation, or metaphorically, to remain in the closet in an effort to pass for heterosexual.

Marginalization also occurs when marriage rights are heterosexist. Moreover, such limitation prevents same-sex couples from receiving the inherent social respect of marriage and its cultural symbolism.

Yolanda Dreyer, professor of practical theology at University of Pretoria , has stated that "Heterosexism leads to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and violence. It is driven by fear and hatred Dreyer 5. Similarly, any woman who opposes male dominance and control can be labeled a lesbian and attacked.

The potential of being ostracized as homosexual, regardless of actual sexual attractions and behaviors, puts pressure on all people to conform to a narrow standard of appropriate gender behavior, thereby maintaining and reinforcing our society's hierarchical gender structure. Another form of heterosexist violence as social control that most often targets lesbian women is corrective rape : a gang rape of a lesbian to "cure" her of her same-sex attractions.

A notorious example from South Africa is the corrective rape and murder of Eudy Simelane , LGBT-rights activist and member of the women's national football team. According to a Frontline article titled Inside the Mind of People Who Hate Gays, bias-related violence against homosexuals is believed to be widespread in the United States, with perpetrators typically described by victims as young men in groups who assault targets of convenience.

Victims accounts suggest that assailants possess tremendous rage and hatred; indeed, documentation of horrific levels of brutality has led gay activists to characterize the violence as political terrorism aimed at all gay men and lesbians.

Other motives for antigay violence suggested in the literature include male bonding, proving heterosexuality, and purging secret homosexual desires. According to an article in the Howard Journal of Communications, some LGBT individuals have responded to heterosexism through direct confrontation and communication, or through the removal of self from the hostile environment. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment.

Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. See also: Religion and homosexuality , Homosexuality and psychology , Sexual orientation and medicine disambiguation , and Social attitudes toward homosexuality.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. LGBT portal Society portal. Heterosexism: An Ethical Challenge. State University of New York Press. Addressing Homophobia and Heterosexism on College Campuses.

The definition for heterosexism that I used for authors in the collection is: The expectation that all persons should be or are heterosexual. The belief that heterosexual relations are normal and the norm. These expectations and beliefs occur on individual, institutional, and cultural levels.

Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 3 September The Dictionary of Psychology. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Gender Knot. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved August 29, Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? Basic Books.