Bonobos y homosexualidad

Konrad Lorenz

They concluded that the homosexual contact between female bonobos was an important means for low-ranking females to consolidate bonds. They engage in an enormous amount of sex, so much so that it's often referred to as a "bonobo handshake", and that includes homosexual. Filmmakers recently went in search of homosexual wild animals as part of a Dunbar says the bonobo's use of homosexual activity for social.

No menos inteligentes que los chimpancés, los bonobos gozan de un . Las personas pro homosexualidad, feministas, lesbianas, Bisexuales. They engage in an enormous amount of sex, so much so that it's often referred to as a "bonobo handshake", and that includes homosexual. Among the primate order, homosexual behavior is most frequently observed in bonobos. However, it also occurs in other species, such as.

Roughly 60% of all bonobo sexual activity occurs between two or more females. While the homosexual bonding system in bonobos. Humans share nearly 99 percent of their DNA with bonobos; since same-sex relationships are a prominent part of bonobo culture, and that of. Among the primate order, homosexual behavior is most frequently observed in bonobos. However, it also occurs in other species, such as.

Over the past few decades, American society has bonobos its tolerance and acceptance of differing sexualities. Among the primate orderhomosexual behavior is most frequently observed in bonobos.

However, it also occurs in other species, such as Japanese homosexualidad and capuchin monkeys. Recent homosexualidad of homosexual behavior in male spider monkeys adds to our knowledge of these behaviors and may help us answer questions about the evolutionary functions homosexual behaviors may play, as well as allow us to consider if other animals have sexual orientations similar to the identities that humans construct.

From April-DecemberLaura Busia and colleagues observed three separate instances of homosexual behavior between male spider monkeys. This is particularly notable, given that observing homosexualidad sexual behavior in spider monkeys is typically rare.

Spider monkeys are a challenge to study because they tend to be high up in the tree canopy and can move very quickly through the trees. All of these factors make observing sexual activity very rare.

All three cases that Busia documented involved the same resident adult male, TU. In the first case, TU first copulated with a female, then left her to travel with another adult male. After grooming and grappling, TU initiated copulation with the other male twice. In the second case, while in a subgroup with both males and females, TU copulated with a lower-ranking peripheral male.

In the third case, TU copulated with another resident adult male. The authors were able to describe these encounters in great detail. For example, here is an excerpt from case Although it is difficult to draw conclusions from such few observations, Busia and colleagues consider how these behaviors fit with two competing homosexualidad for homosexual behavior: the 1 regulation of social relationships hypothesis and 2 the tension-regulation hypothesis.

Such hypotheses, derived from research on baboons and bonobos, suggest that homosexual behaviors may either be a means of strengthening alliances or defusing a tense situation. However, distinguishing between these two functions is difficult, particularly with such few observations. In bonobos, where genito-genital rubbing frequently occurs between females, there is homosexualidad support for both hypotheses.

As with consortships with females, all three episodes occurred in the absence of other group members. However, unlike copulations with females, the male-male bonobos were very short. The two studies with the best documentation of sexual behavior in spider monkeys both report very long copulatory periods. Previous studies of spider bonobos sexual behavior, report copulations lasting an average duration of minutes.

In contrast, the male-male copulations that Busia and colleagues observed lasted less than 30 seconds. These differences suggest that male-male sexual behavior is not completely analogous to male-female copulations.

However, the question this study raises for me is the possibility that other animals may potentially bonobos in sexual orientations, the way that humans do. Bonobos of the observations that Busia documented involved a single male, TU. Does this mean TU is gay or bisexual?

Human sexual identities are channeled bonobos human sociocultural constructions. Thus, it is uncertain whether these social identities can be accurately ascribed to other animals. Nonetheless, it is possible that other animals vary in their desire for homosexual versus heterosexual behaviors and partners.

However, in Japanese macaques, some females exhibit preferences for homosexualidad female partners over male partners. Additionally, some male sheep exhibit preferences for other male sheep, corresponding to differences in their brains.

The fact that TU left consorting with a female for another male suggests that perhaps TU prefers males. Thus far, discrimination against sexual minorities appears to be a uniquely human trait.

Busia, L. Homosexual behavior between bonobos spider monkeys Ateles geoffroyi. Archives of Sexual Behavior47 4— Hohmann, G. Use and function of genital contacts among female bonobos. Animal Behaviour60 1— Gibson, K. Male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete.

American Journal of Primatology72 9— Manson, J. Nonconceptive Sexual Behavior in Bonobos and Capuchins. International Journal of Primatology18 5— Roselli, C. Hormonal influences on sexual partner preference in rams. Archives of Sexual Behavior31 143— Roughgarden, J. Berkeley: University homosexualidad California Press. Vasey, P. Sexual preference in female Japanese macaques. Archives of Sexual Behavior31 151— Michelle A. Are you aware of our report on ambisexual behavior in male rhesus in the mids?

Erwin and Maple. Bonobos monkeys prefer to have sex in secret from their conspecifics. Hmm, I am left feeling that the title promised more! OK, so other primates will homosexualidad time one-on-one in same-sex couplings and attempt to copulate. The observations on same sex coupling among animals has to be interesting yet incomplete. Since we can agree that animals are beneath us humans, what cues could we gain from animals. Would it not behoove us to observe human relationships, forget birds, bees, spider monkeys.

Was there ever actual penetration by a lower ranking male to a higher ranking male? Or was it always by higher ranking males to subservient ones?

Same question about females. Was it always the high status male initiating same sex activity? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Hit enter to search or ESC to close. Michelle Rodrigues Michelle A. Get Updates. Anthony LopezHammad Sheikh December 4, Edward Hagen October 3, Michelle Rodrigues October 2, Marco Smolla says:.

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Woods and Hare are on the board of the nonprofit Lola ya Bonobo , a sanctuary for orphan bonobos in Congo. Lodja sees Mwanda and shrieks in excitement.

They run toward each other with such force that when they embrace, they fall to the ground in each other's arms. Without much foreplay, Lodja grinds her hips against Mwanda and their clitorises rub together with increasing speed and friction. They hold each other tight, cry and shriek, and when it is over, they fall apart exhausted, and lazily snack on some fruit. There are hundreds of examples of non-reproductive sex among animals, from albatrosses to koalas.

But none of these examples can make people quite so uncomfortable as bonobos do. Two bonobo females having sex looks very different than two female albatrosses sitting placidly on their nest.

Bonobo sex looks human. These primates are so closely related to people that they share Along with chimpanzees, they are humans' closest living relatives. Yet, barely anyone knows what a bonobo is. Bonobos are one of the few species in which all adult members of one sex engage in habitual same-sex sexual interactions that occur at similar or even greater frequencies as opposite-sex interactions.

In the wild, all adult females perform same-sex genital contacts, known as genito-genital rubbing or GG-rubbing on a regular basis with many other females in their community. In contrast, male bonobos rarely engage in same-sex sexual behavior.

There are several theories to explain the function of same-sex sexual behavior in bonobos, including as a way to reduce social tension, prevent aggression or form social bonds. However, none of these theories can explain why such behavior occurs so frequently only among females. To clarify why same-sex sexual behavior is so important specifically for female bonobos, we collected behavioral and hormonal data for over a year from all adult members of a habituated bonobo community at the long-term LuiKotale field site in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

In addition to our focus on sexual interactions, we identified preferred partners for other social activities such as giving support in conflicts. We also collected urine to measure the hormone oxytocin, which is released in the body in other species after friendly social interactions, including sex and helps to promote cooperation.

We found that in competitive situations, females preferred to have sex with other females rather than with males. After sex, females often remained closer to each other than did mixed sex pairs, and females had measurable increases in urinary oxytocin following sex with females, but not following sex with males.

Among same-sex and opposite-sex pairs, individuals who had more sex also supported each other more often in conflicts, but the majority of these coalitions were formed among females. For humans as well, alliances between members of the same sex provide many benefits, including mutual social support and sharing of resources.

There is also historical and cross-cultural evidence that such alliances are often reinforced through sexual interactions. More from Biology and Medical. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. Your opinions are important to us. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence.

E-mail the story New insights help to explain why same-sex sexual interactions are so important for female bonobos Your friend's email Your email I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. Learn more Your name Note Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose.

The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. More information Privacy policy. Both male and female pigeons sometimes exhibit homosexual behavior. In addition to sexual behavior, same-sex pigeon pairs will build nests, and hens will lay infertile eggs and attempt to incubate them. The Amazon river dolphin or boto has been reported to form up in bands of 3—5 individuals engaging in sexual activity.

The groups usually comprise young males and sometimes one or two females. Sex is often performed in non-reproductive ways, using snout, flippers and genital rubbing, without regard to gender.

Courtship, mounting, and full anal penetration between bulls has been noted to occur among American bison. The Mandan nation Okipa festival concludes with a ceremonial enactment of this behavior, to "ensure the return of the buffalo in the coming season".

The behaviour is hormone driven and synchronizes with the emergence of estrus heat , particularly in the presence of a bull.

More than 20 species of bat have been documented to engage in homosexual behavior. Bat species that have been observed engaging in homosexual behavior in captivity include the Comoro flying fox Pteropus livingstonii , the Rodrigues flying fox Pteropus rodricensis and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Homosexual behavior in bats has been categorized into 6 groups: mutual homosexual grooming and licking, homosexual masturbation, homosexual play, homosexual mounting, coercive sex, and cross-species homosexual sex.

In the wild, the grey-headed flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus engages in allogrooming wherein one partner licks and gently bites the chest and wing membrane of the other partner.

Both sexes display this form of mutual homosexual grooming and it is more common in males. Males often have erect penises while they are mutually grooming each other. In wild Bonin flying foxes Pteropus pselaphon , males perform fellatio or 'male-male genital licking' on other males. Male—male genital licking events occur repeatedly several times in the same pair, and reciprocal genital licking also occurs.

The male-male genital licking in these bats is considered a sexual behavior. Allogrooming in Bonin flying foxes has never been observed, hence the male-male genital licking in this species does not seem to be a by-product of allogrooming, but rather a behavior of directly licking the male genital area, independent of allogrooming.

In wild Indian flying foxes Pteropus giganteus , males often mount one another, with erections and thrusting, while play-wrestling. A similar behavior was also observed in the common bent-wing bat Miniopterus schreibersii. In wild little brown bats Myotis lucifugus , males often mount other males and females during late autumn and winter, when many of the mounted individuals are torpid.

The lethargic males, like females, called out loudly and presented their buccal glands with opened mouth during copulation. I have even seen homosexuality between Natterer's and Daubenton's bats Myotis nattereri and M. Dolphins of several species engage in homosexual acts, though it is best studied in the bottlenose dolphins. Janet Mann, Georgetown University professor of biology and psychology, argues that the strong personal behavior among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species in an evolutionary context.

Confrontations between flocks of bottlenose dolphins and the related species Atlantic spotted dolphin will sometimes lead to cross-species homosexual behaviour between the males rather than combat. African and Asian males will engage in same-sex bonding and mounting. Such encounters are often associated with affectionate interactions, such as kissing, trunk intertwining, and placing trunks in each other's mouths.

Male elephants, who often live apart from the general herd, often form "companionships", consisting of an older individual and one or sometimes two younger males with sexual behavior being an important part of the social dynamic. Unlike heterosexual relations, which are always of a fleeting nature, the relationships between males may last for years.

The encounters are analogous to heterosexual bouts, one male often extending his trunk along the other's back and pushing forward with his tusks to signify his intention to mount. Male giraffes have been observed to engage in remarkably high frequencies of homosexual behavior. After aggressive "necking", it is common for two male giraffes to caress and court each other, leading up to mounting and climax.

Such interactions between males have been found to be more frequent than heterosexual coupling. Homosexual behavior is quite common in wild marmots. Additionally, a female may gently chew on the ear or neck of her partner, who responds by raising her tail. The first female may sniff the other's genital region or nuzzle that region with her mouth.

She may then proceed to mount the other female, during which the mounting female gently grasps the mounted female's dorsal neck fur in her jaws while thrusting. The mounted female arches her back and holds her tail to one side to facilitate their sexual interaction. Both male and female lions have been seen to interact homosexually. Pairings between females are held to be fairly common in captivity but have not been observed in the wild. European polecats Mustela putorius were found to engage homosexually with non-sibling animals.

Exclusive homosexuality with mounting and anal penetration in this solitary species serves no apparent adaptive function. Bonobos form a matriarchal society, unusual among apes. They are fully bisexual : both males and females engage in hetero- and homosexual behavior, being noted for female—female sex in particular, [84] including between juveniles and adults.

While the homosexual bonding system in bonobos represents the highest frequency of homosexuality known in any primate species, homosexuality has been reported for all great apes a group which includes humans , as well as a number of other primate species.

Dutch primatologist Frans de Waal , who extensively observed and filmed bonobos, believed that sexual activity is the bonobo's way of avoiding conflict.

Anything that arouses the interest of more than one bonobo at a time, not just food, tends to result in sexual contact. If two bonobos approach a cardboard box thrown into their enclosure, they will briefly mount each other before playing with the box. Such situations lead to squabbles in most other species. But bonobos are quite tolerant, perhaps because they use sex to divert attention and to defuse tension.

Bonobo sex often occurs in aggressive contexts totally unrelated to food. A jealous male might chase another away from a female, after which the two males reunite and engage in scrotal rubbing. Or after a female hits a juvenile, the latter's mother may lunge at the aggressor, an action that is immediately followed by genital rubbing between the two adults.

Homosexual behavior among male gorillas has been studied. Homosexual behavior among female mountain gorillas has also been documented. With the Japanese macaque , also known as the "snow monkey ", same-sex relations are frequent, though rates vary between troops.

Females will form " consortships " characterized by affectionate social and sexual activities. In some troops up to one quarter of the females form such bonds, which vary in duration from a few days to a few weeks. Often, strong and lasting friendships result from such pairings.

Males also have same-sex relations, typically with multiple partners of the same age. Affectionate and playful activities are associated with such relations. Homosexual behavior forms part of the natural repertoire of sexual or sociosexual behavior of orangutans. Male homosexual behavior occurs both in the wild and in captivity, and it occurs in both adolescent and mature individuals. Homosexual behavior in orangutans is not an artifact of captivity or contact with humans.

Among monkeys [ clarification needed ] , Lionel Tiger and Robin Fox conducted a study on how Depo-Provera contraceptives lead to decreased male attraction to females. Several observations indicate that male—male sexual preference in rams is sexually motivated.

Rams routinely perform the same courtship behaviors including foreleg kicks, nudges, vocalizations, anogenital sniffs and flehmen prior to mounting other males as observed when other rams court and mount estrous females. Furthermore, pelvic thrusting and ejaculation often accompany same-sex mounts by rams. A number of studies have reported differences in brain structure and function between male-oriented and female-oriented rams, suggesting that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired.

Charles E. Roselli et al. Oregon Health and Science University , states that homosexuality in male sheep is associated with a region in the rams' brains which the authors call the "ovine Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus" oSDN which is half the size of the corresponding region in heterosexual male sheep.

In addition, the oSDN of the female-oriented rams expressed higher levels of aromatase , a substance that converts testosterone to estradiol , a form of estrogen which is believed to facilitate typical male sexual behaviors.

Aromatase expression was no different between male-oriented rams and ewes [ Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression. It should also be noted that the results of this particular study have not been confirmed by other studies. The Merck Manual of Veterinary Medicine appears to consider homosexuality among sheep as a routine occurrence and an issue to be dealt with as a problem of animal husbandry.

Studies have failed to identify any compelling social factors that can predict or explain the variations in sexual partner preferences of domestic rams.

Indeed, male-oriented rams are not more or less dominant than female-oriented rams. Homosexual courtship and sexual activity routinely occur among rams of wild sheep species, such as Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis , Thinhorn sheep Ovis dalli , mouflons and urials Ovis orientalis. To initiate homosexual courtship, a courting male approaches the other male with his head and neck lowered and extended far forward in what is called the 'low-stretch' posture. He may combine this with the 'twist,' in which the courting male sharply rotates his head and points his muzzle toward the other male, often while flicking his tongue and making grumbling sounds.

The courting male also often performs a 'foreleg kick,' in which he snaps his front leg up against the other male's belly or between his hind legs. He also occasionally sniffs and nuzzles the other male's genital area and may perform the flehmen response. Thinhorn rams additionally lick the penis of the male they are courting.

In response, the male being courted may rub his cheeks and forehead on the courting male's face, nibble and lick him, rub his horns on the courting male's neck, chest, or shoulders, and develop an erection.

Males of another wild sheep species, the Asiatic Mouflons , perform similar courtship behaviors towards fellow males. Sexual activity between wild males typically involves mounting and anal intercourse.

In Thinhorn sheep, genital licking also occurs. During mounting, the larger male usually mounts the smaller male by rearing up on his hind legs and placing his front legs on his partner's flanks. The mounting male usually has an erect penis and accomplishes full anal penetration while performing pelvic thrusts that may lead to ejaculation. The mounted male arches his back to facilitate the copulation. Homosexual courtship and sexual activity can also take place in groups composed of three to ten wild rams clustered together in a circle.

These non-aggressive groups are called 'huddles' and involve rams rubbing, licking, nuzzling, horning, and mounting each other. Female Mountain sheep also engage in occasional courtship activities with one another and in sexual activities such as licking each other's genitals and mounting.

The family structure of the spotted hyena is matriarchal , and dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females. Due largely to the female spotted hyena's unique urogenital system , which looks more like a penis rather than a vagina, early naturalists thought hyenas were hermaphroditic males who commonly practiced homosexuality.

In Paedagogus , Clement of Alexandria noted that the hyena along with the hare was "quite obsessed with sexual intercourse". Many Europeans associated the hyena with sexual deformity, prostitution, deviant sexual behavior, and even witchcraft.

The reality behind the confusing reports is the sexually aggressive behavior between the females, including mounting between females. Research has shown that "in contrast to most other female mammals, female Crocuta are male-like in appearance, larger than males, and substantially more aggressive," [] and they have "been masculinized without being defeminized".

Study of this unique genitalia and aggressive behavior in the female hyena has led to the understanding that more aggressive females are better able to compete for resources, including food and mating partners. Several species of whiptail lizard especially in the genus Aspidoscelis consist only of females that have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis. Those animals with currently high estrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles. Some parthenogenetic lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fertility than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviors.

So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success.