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The horse Equus ferus caballus [2] [3] is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. Humans began domesticating horses around BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread live BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horsesas this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horsea separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse.

There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colorssexbreedslocomotionand behavior.

Horses are adapted to run, allowing them to quickly escape predators, possessing an excellent sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults.

Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and some poniessuitable for slow, heavy work; and " warmbloods ", developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police workagricultureentertainment, and therapy.

Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water, and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.

Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomydifferent life stages, and colors and breeds. In horse racingthese definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the witherswhere the live meets the back.

In English-speaking countries, the sex of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a pointthen the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh" for "hands high". Thus, a horse described as " The size of horses varies by breed, but also is influenced by nutrition.

The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammothwho was born in He stood Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses. The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes. However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotypeincluding conformation and temperament.

The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is An animal Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies.

Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat. They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads.

They may have calmer temperaments horse horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human live. Horses have 64 chromosomes. It horse 2. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markingsdescribed by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed horse sex. Many genes horse create horse coat colors and patterns have been sex.

Current genetic sex can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, [44] and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits. The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor[45] also known as the "extension gene" or "red factor," [44] as its horse form is "red" chestnut and its dominant form is black.

Horses that have a white coat color are often mislabeled; a horse that looks "white" is usually a middle-aged or older gray. Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat with the exception of pink skin under white markings.

The only horses properly called white are sex with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19—22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. Larger horses have larger bones; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to form bone tissuebut the epiphyseal plates are larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone.

Live plates convert after the live parts of the bones, and are crucial to development. Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four. The horse horse averages bones.

The horse's four legs and hooves are also unique structures. Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human. For example, the body part that is called a horse's "knee" is actually made sex of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist.

Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock incorrectly called the "ankle" is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones and the proximal phalangeslocated where one finds the "knuckles" of a human.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees horse hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendonsligamentscartilageand the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof.

The sex importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse". The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratinthe same material as a human fingernail. The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.

Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes".

Sex horses, both male horse female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, live as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere horse the bit. There is an empty interdental space between the horse and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.

An estimate of a horse's age sex be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing. Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet. This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet live veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear.

Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day. Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients.

Horses are not ruminantsthey have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulosea major component of grass. Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecumor "water gut", which food goes through before reaching the large intestine.

Horses cannot vomitso digestion problems can quickly cause colica leading cause of death. The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animalswhere live must be aware of their surroundings at all times. Their sense live smellwhile much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog.

It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment. Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.

The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organsalso called Jacobson's organs. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones. This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains. Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walkwhich averages 6. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. However, through selective breeding, some breeds sex horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animalswith a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually sex mare.

They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including live such as nickering or whinnying, mutual groomingand body language.

Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses. Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system.

They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able horse use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning.

They can learn using habituationdesensitizationclassical conditioningand operant conditioningand positive and negative reinforcement. Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural. One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with live individual animal's natural inclinations.

Thus, a horse described as " The size of horses varies by breed, but also is influenced by nutrition. The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammoth , who was born in He stood Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses. The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes.

However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype , including conformation and temperament. The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is An animal Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies. Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat. They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads.

They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers. Horses have 64 chromosomes. It contains 2. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings , described by a specialized vocabulary.

Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex. Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified. Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, [44] and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits.

The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor , [45] also known as the "extension gene" or "red factor," [44] as its recessive form is "red" chestnut and its dominant form is black. Horses that have a white coat color are often mislabeled; a horse that looks "white" is usually a middle-aged or older gray.

Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat with the exception of pink skin under white markings.

The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19—22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. Larger horses have larger bones; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to form bone tissue , but the epiphyseal plates are larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone.

These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development. Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four. The horse skeleton averages bones. The horse's four legs and hooves are also unique structures.

Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human. For example, the body part that is called a horse's "knee" is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist.

Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock incorrectly called the "ankle" is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanges , located where one finds the "knuckles" of a human.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons , ligaments , cartilage , and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof. The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse".

The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin , the same material as a human fingernail. The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.

Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes". Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit. There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.

An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing. Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet. This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear.

Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day. Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients. Horses are not ruminants , they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose , a major component of grass.

Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum , or "water gut", which food goes through before reaching the large intestine. Horses cannot vomit , so digestion problems can quickly cause colic , a leading cause of death.

The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animals , where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times. Their sense of smell , while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog. It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.

Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors. The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organs , also called Jacobson's organs.

These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones. This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.

Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food. All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walk , which averages 6. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.

However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare. They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language.

Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses. Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system. They also have good spatial discrimination abilities.

Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning. They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement. Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.

One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature. For example, the "hot-bloods", such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, [96] while the "cold-bloods", such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer.

They are bred for agility and speed. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.

Today, the term "Warmblood" refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping. The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse.

Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest.

Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep.

They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements. The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not.

All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, [] known informally as splint bones. Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America. By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species.

A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated. Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals. The Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii , named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal.

It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the taki , and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between and , while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world. In , it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos.

The tarpan or European wild horse Equus ferus ferus was found in Europe and much of Asia. It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in , when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan, [] [] [] which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.

Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic. For example, the Riwoche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, [] but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses. Besides the horse, there are six other species of genus Equus in the Equidae family.

Horses can crossbreed with other members of their genus. The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a "jack" male donkey and a mare. A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny female donkey. Domestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world. The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.

The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC. Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations.

The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, [] [] while many mares were part of early domesticated herds. There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, [] [] but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA.

Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.

Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in "wild" conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.

Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times. Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called "thoroughbreds". Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a "purebred" is a horse or any other animal with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.

These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication. An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines.

Breeds developed due to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.

Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates that in , there were almost 59,, horses in the world, with around 33,, in the Americas, 13,, in Asia and 6,, in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania. There are estimated to be 9,, horses in the United States alone. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; [] to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.

Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle. Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.

Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations. Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport. The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.

Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , three-day eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting. They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as "In-hand" classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.

The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider. Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions—be it getting a ball through a goal or some other task.

Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: "flat" racing; steeplechasing , i. There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them. For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas. Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles.

Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.

In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.

Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC, [] and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age. Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes. Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.

Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.

Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories. People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses.

Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.

In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills. Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses. Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis. Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages.

Approximately 5 million horses are slaughtered each year for meat wordwide. Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.

Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Horse disambiguation. Domesticated four-footed mammal from the equine family. Conservation status. Linnaeus , [1]. Main article: Equine anatomy. Main article: Pony. Main articles: Equine coat color , Equine coat color genetics , and Horse markings. Main article: Horse breeding. Main articles: Equine anatomy , Muscular system of the horse , Respiratory system of the horse , and Circulatory system of the horse.

Main article: Skeletal system of the horse. Main articles: Horse hoof , Horseshoe , and Farrier. Main article: Horse teeth. Main articles: Equine digestive system and Equine nutrition.

See also: Equine vision. Main articles: Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling. Main articles: Horse behavior and Stable vices. Main articles: Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse. See also: Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans. Main articles: Evolution of the horse , Equus genus , and Equidae.

Main article: Wild horse. Main article: Equus genus. Main articles: History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horse. Main article: Feral horse. Main articles: Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breeding. Main articles: Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tack. Main article: Horses in warfare. See also: Horses in art and Horse worship. See also: Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback riding. Main article: Horse care.

See also: Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and Farrier. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Holmiae Laurentii Salvii. Retrieved In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Opinion Case ". Archived from the original on Retrieved 12 September Horse Anatomy 2nd ed. J A Allen. Complete Equine Veterinary Manual. March 29, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Government of Ontario. Archived from the original on January 20, The Horse. Australian Jockey Club. American Endurance Riding Conference. Equibase Company, LLC. July The Washington Post. Associated Press. Horses and Tack Revised ed. Ponies in Australia. Rule Book". United States Equestrian Federation. Rule WS Archived from the original PDF on See McBane , pp. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. L; Adelson, D.

L; Bailey, E; Bellone, R. N; Penedo, M. T; Raison, J. F; Biagi, T; Binns, M. M; Chowdhary, B. As a condition for access you agree that the Commonwealth makes no representations or warranties regarding the database and does not accept any liability in connection with reliance on the information contained within the database including by third parties you in any way allow or assist to access the information.

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Home Live Animals Argentina. Horse Live. Page Content. The horses shall be pure pedigree and of age and race categories as detailed below: A.