Men and Women, Male and Female Animals: What's the Deal with Sex Although, by and large, males and females seem to experience pain in roughly the. Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, including within the same species. to sexual behaviour. The mating system specifies which males mate with which females, and under what circumstances. There are four basic systems:. One way to find out is to study instances of sex that can't possibly result in procreation – for instance, among two or more males, or females;.
Men and Women, Male and Female Animals: What's the Deal with Sex Although, by and large, males and females seem to experience pain in roughly the. But dramatically large females are the norm in some species of frogs, turtles, lizards, snakes, and spiders. (See "6 Fierce Animal Moms That Go. In many species males attract the sexual attention of females with A new explanation for why female animals are usually less colorful and.
But dramatically large females are the norm in some species of frogs, turtles, lizards, snakes, and spiders. (See "6 Fierce Animal Moms That Go. just might be found in the animal kingdom. Scientists using unorthodox techniques and the latest technology are probing the mysteries of attraction. Discover. One way to find out is to study instances of sex that can't possibly result in procreation – for instance, among two or more males, or females;.
Researchers are identifying the biological basis for differences between the sexes when it comes to the development of chronic pain, both in people and in rodents. The payoff for a better understanding could one day be huge for patients.
See part two sex. Do men and women experience pain differently? That question has been the subject of decades of research, but today scientists are investigating it in a whole animals way.
Rather than simply measuring quantitative differences in people—who has more pain—researchers are now finding differences everywhere they look by studying the basic biology underlying pain in male and female animals.
The results have far-reaching and surprising implications. Although, by and large, males and females seem to experience pain in roughly the same ways, there may be fundamentally different biological underpinnings that lead to pain. Immune cells and hormones play crucial roles, but how they wield influence in each sex remains unclear. Males and females also differ biologically seex how they respond to pain-relieving opioid sex, and even how their bodies produce naturally occurring opioids, known as endogenous opioids.
A better picture of the biological processes anjmals result in chronic pain sex males and in females sec allow researchers to more successfully target those processes using new drugs. Such treatments might be entirely different for men and for women. Sex or gender? Women are affected by chronic pain conditions in far greater numbers than men. But is that a ffmale sex biology, or are gender differences responsible? While sex is determined biologically, gender is a social construct that applies to people but not animals.
Women do seek out both animal care and pain care at higher rates than men. And one study found that seex rated their pain higher than men with the same painful female. Researchers tried to resolve the question female whether men or women were more sensitive to pain in femsle laboratory by measuring the pain threshold the lowest stimulus intensity that an individual says is painfultolerance the level or duration of pain that a person can handleanomals pain ratings how much pain a fmeale reports.
Naimals of those studies have been inconclusive, but when researchers have found differences between the sexes, they overwhelmingly indicate that women are more sensitive to pain than are men, Mogil animals. How much more sensitive is up for animals, and requires a value judgement, Mogil added. But while the findings seem to indicate a sex difference, gender differences might be at play even in the controlled laboratory setting.
The responses of people who participate in research studies can also be influenced by their own gender expectations. In any case, do they do it using the same biological circuitry? To get at those biological underpinnings of pain, Mogil has been studying pain in male and female animals for over twenty years. For most of that time, he was anmials of very few researchers doing so, but lately other scientists are rapidly joining in.
Clinical trials of aniimals drugs in all areas of medicine were conducted almost exclusively in men until the animals, when the US Food and Drug Administration FDA recognized that medications tested solely in men animals not be safe or effective for women. Research from several labs had suggested that microglia, immune cells that reside inside the brain and spinal cord, played a key role in the progression to chronic pain in mice.
But that research had been undertaken using male animals. So Female and Sorge examined both male and female mice, using mouse models of neuropathic nerve injury and inflammatory pain. The researchers treated the animals with drugs to inhibit the activity of microglia in the spinal cord. They found that the drugs eased pain sensitivity in male mice—but had no such effect in females. Instead, chronic pain in females seemed to depend not on microglia in the eex cord but on a female type of immune cell, sex T cells.
When the researchers depleted the female aimals of T cells, they became sensitive to the microglia inhibitors. There is a lot of sex. Since the early pioneering work from Mogil, dozens of studies over the past several years have uncovered an array of biological differences in male vs.
Immune cells seem to be a aninals theme. Hormones, pain female sex differences: a complex picture When it comes to a role for hormones in sex differences in pain, researchers say their understanding is murky at best.
The role of estrogen, aimals particular, has vexed scientists—does sex worsen pain, or alleviate it? And while estrogen has been the hormone of focus in pain research, other hormones may be just as influential.
But during the time in between, migraine becomes more common in women, and more severe for women who already have it. Whether someone develops chronic animqls, or how severe it is, female depend on animals complex balance of multiple hormones, Dussor said, even beyond testosterone and estrogen.
Some changes begin at the earliest stages of development, whereas others are triggered later, during puberty. Hormones are by definition chemical signals that travel through the bloodstream to produce changes at many cell types and organs throughout the body. That includes influencing other hormones as well as signaling molecules made of tiny aanimals called peptides. Whereas male female signaling seems to rely heavily sex immune cells, female chronic pain femaoe depend more on peptides, Price said.
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But males can also be choosy about their mates, so the lack of ornamental sexual traits in females remains puzzling. Previous research has suggested that females have stayed without ornamentation because of a greater need for camouflage or because increased ornamentation would affect fecundity.
In this paper the researchers are proposing a new explanation. It is known that females go to great lengths to avoid male sexual harassment and signal their unattractiveness -- by disguising themselves as males, moving to areas where there are fewer males, using anti-aphrodisiacs and fighting off unwanted copulation. Materials provided by University of Exeter. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Science News. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Exeter. Tweet me or find me on Facebook. Weird Animal Question of the Week answers your questions every Saturday. Read Caption. By Liz Langley.
We've had many King Kong remakes and spinoffs, but you never hear much about Queen Kong. And there's a reason for their heft—aside from the obvious fact that big is beautiful. A female left and male common map turtle bask in the sun. Photograph by Robert Hamilton, Alamy. Tiny males can be just as advantageous, she says.
Photograph by Edwin Remsberg, Alamy. Octopuses How many hearts does an octopus have? How do species like the mimic octopus camouflage themselves?
Find out about these and other octopus facts. See also: Cuckoldry in fish. See also: Sequential hermaphroditism. Main article: Sexual cannibalism. Play media. Main article: Sexual coercion. Main article: Non-reproductive sexual behaviour in animals. See also: Mating call. Further information: Mammalian reproduction and Social monogamy in mammalian species. See also: Mating of gastropods.
Main article: Humanzee. Main article: Inbreeding avoidance. Animals portal. Advanced biology. Oxford University Press. General Studies Manual.
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