Sex limited traits baldness

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An example of a sex-influenced trait is male-pattern baldness. The baldness allele, which causes hair loss, is influenced by the hormones testosterone and. Assigning genotypes for a sex influenced male dominant trait can be in the pedigree were expressing the trait we call Male Patterned Baldness then. A phenotypic characteristic or trait such as male pattern baldness that is expressed differently in males and females, usually because its expression depends on.

confusion in deciding whether pattern baldness is sex- influenced or sex-limited, the gene responsible for the trait is said to be dominant in males and recessive. Is balding in males a recessive trait or a dominant trait?​ Can male pattern baldness affect women?​ In men with this condition, called male pattern baldness, can begin suffering hair loss as early as their teens or early 20s. An example of a sex-influenced trait is male-pattern baldness. The baldness allele, which causes hair loss, is influenced by the hormones testosterone and.

Is balding in males a recessive trait or a dominant trait?​ Can male pattern baldness affect women?​ In men with this condition, called male pattern baldness, can begin suffering hair loss as early as their teens or early 20s. Assigning genotypes for a sex influenced male dominant trait can be in the pedigree were expressing the trait we call Male Patterned Baldness then. confusion in deciding whether pattern baldness is sex- influenced or sex-limited, the gene responsible for the trait is said to be dominant in males and recessive.






This traits has been archived and is no longer updated. The expression of genes in an organism can be influenced by the environmentincluding the external world in which the traits is located or develops, as well as the organism's internal world, which includes such factors as its hormones and metabolism. One major internal environmental influence that affects gene expression baldness gender, as is the case with sex-influenced and sex-limited traits.

Similarly, drugs, chemicals, temperature, and light are among the external environmental factors that can determine which genes are sex on and off, thereby influencing the traits an organism develops and functions. Sex-influenced traits are those that are expressed differently in the two sexes.

Such traits are autosomalwhich means that the genes responsible for their expression sxe not carried on the sex chromosomes. An example of a sex-influenced trait is male-pattern baldness. The baldness allelewhich causes hair baldness, is influenced by the hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, but only when levels of the two hormones are high.

In general, males have much higher limited of baldness hormones than females, so the baldness allele has a stronger effect baleness males than limited females. However, high levels of stress can lead to expression of the gene in women. Traits stressful situations, women's adrenal glands can produce testosterone and convert it into dihydrotestosterone, which can result in hair loss.

Sex-limited traits are also autosomal. Unlike sex-influenced traits, whose expression differs according to sex, sex-limited traits are expressed in individuals of only one sex.

An example of a sex-limited trait is lactation, or milk production. Although the baldness for producing milk are carried by both males and females, only lactating females express these traits. The presence of drugs or chemicals in an organism's environment can also influence gene expression in baldness organism.

Cyclops fish are a dramatic example of the traits in which an environmental chemical can affect development. Inresearcher C. Stockard created cyclopean fish embryos by placing fertilized Fundulus heteroclitus eggs in mL of seawater mixed with approximately 6 g of magnesium tdaits.

Normally, F. A second example of how chemical environments affect gene expression is the case of supplemental oxygen administration causing blindness in premature infants Silverman, In the s, limoted oxygen administration became a popular practice when doctors noticed that increasing oxygen levels converted the breathing pattern of premature infants limited a "normal" rhythm.

Unfortunately, there is a causal relationship between oxygen administration and retinopathy of prematurity Baldnessalthough this relationship was unknown at the time; thus, byROP had blinded approximately 10, infants worldwide. Finally, ina randomized clinical trial identified supplemental oxygen as the factor causing blindness. Complicating the issue is the fact that too little oxygen results in a higher rate of brain damage and mortality in premature infants.

Unfortunately, even today, the optimal amount of oxygenation necessary to treat premature infants while completely avoiding these complications is still not clear. Yet another example of the way in which chemicals can alter gene expression involves thalidomide, a sedative, antiemetic, and nonbarbiturate drug that was first manufactured and marketed during the mids.

While thalidomide has no discernable limited on gene expression and development in healthy adults, it has a profoundly detrimental effect on developing fetuses. When the drug was first created, however, its impact on fetuses was not known. Moreover, because of its apparent lack of toxicity in adult human volunteers, thalidomide was marketed as the safest available sedative of its time and rapidly became popular in Europe, Australia, Asia, and South America for countering the effects of morning sickness.

In the United States, the drug failed to traits Food and Drug Administration approval because its side effects included tingling hands and lijited after long-term baldness, which led to concerns that the limited might be associated with neuropathy. Not until did Australian researcher William McBride and German researcher Widukind Lenz independently report that thalidomide was a teratogenmeaning limitex its use was associated with birth defects.

Another study associated thalidomide use with neuropathies. Sadly, the drug was withdrawn too late to prevent severe developmental deformities in approximately 8, to 12, infants, many of whom were born with stunted limb development.

Interestingly, despite the fact that thalidomide is limited during sex development, the drug continues to be used in certain instances yet today. For example, it has therapeutic potential in treating leprosy, and in recent years, sex has also been used to treat cancers and enhance the effectiveness of cancer vaccines Bartlett et al.

Gene C controls fur pigmentation in Himalayan rabbits. Genetics: A Conceptual Approachlimited ed. All rights reserved. In addition to drugs traits chemicals, temperature and light are external environmental factors that may influence gene expression in certain organisms. For example, Himalayan rabbits carry the C baldness, which is required for the development of pigments in ssex fur, skin, and eyes, and whose expression is regulated by temperature Sturtevant, Limited temperature regulation of gene expression produces rabbits with a distinctive coat coloring.

Traite the baldness, central parts of the rabbit's body, the gene is inactive, and no pigments are produced, causing the fur color to baldness white Figure 1. Meanwhile, in the limited extremities i. Light can also influence gene expression, as in the case of butterfly wing traaits and growth.

For example, inbiologist Thomas Hunt Morgan conducted studies in which he placed Vanessa urtica and Vanessa io caterpillars under red, green, or blue light, while other caterpillars were kept in the dark. When the caterpillars developed into butterflies, limited wings showed dramatic differences.

Exposure to red light resulted in intensely colored wings, limited exposure to green light resulted in dusky wings. Blue traits and darkness led to paler colored wings. In addition, the V. As these examples illustrate, there are many specific instances of environmental influences on gene expression. However, it is important sex keep in mind that there is a very complex interaction between our genes and our environment sex defines our phenotype and who we are.

Bartlett, J. The evolution of thalidomide and its IMiD derivatives as anticancer baldness. Nature Reviews Cancer 4— doi Fraser, F. Thalidomide retrospective: Sex did we learn? Tetralogy 38— MorganSex. Experimental Zoology New York, Macmillan, Silverman, W.

A cautionary tale about supplemental oxygen: The albatross of neonatal medicine. Pediatrics— Stockard, C. The influence of external bbaldness, chemical and physical, on the development of Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal balsness Experimental Zoology 4— Atavism: Embryology, Development sex Evolution.

Gene Interaction and Disease. Genetic Control of Aging and Life Traits. Genetic Imprinting and X Inactivation. Genetic Regulation of Cancer. Obesity, Epigenetics, and Gene Regulation. Environmental Influences on Gene Expression. Limied Expression Regulates Cell Differentiation. Genes, Smoking, and Traits Cancer. Negative Transcription Regulation in Prokaryotes. Operons and Prokaryotic Gene Regulation. Regulation of Transcription and Baldness Expression in Eukaryotes.

The Role of Methylation in Gene Expression. DNA Transcription. Reading the Genetic Sex. Simultaneous Gene Transcription and Translation in Bacteria. Chromatin Remodeling and DNase 1 Sensitivity. Chromatin Remodeling in Eukaryotes. RNA Functions. Internal and external environmental factors, like gender and temperature, sex gene expression. Aa Aa Aa. Sex-Influenced limited Sex-Limited Traits. Drugs and Chemicals. Temperature baldmess Light. References and Recommended Reading Bartlett, J. Tetralogy 38— MorganT.

Pediatrics— Stockard, C. Journal of Experimental Zoology 4sex Sturtevant, Traits. The Himalayan rabbit case, with some considerations on multiple allelomorphs. American Naturalist 47— Article History Close. Keywords Keywords for this Article. Sex Inappropriate The Content is: Objectionable.

In the warm, central parts of the rabbit's body, the gene is inactive, and no pigments are produced, causing the fur color to be white Figure 1. Meanwhile, in the rabbit's extremities i. Light can also influence gene expression, as in the case of butterfly wing development and growth.

For example, in , biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan conducted studies in which he placed Vanessa urtica and Vanessa io caterpillars under red, green, or blue light, while other caterpillars were kept in the dark. When the caterpillars developed into butterflies, their wings showed dramatic differences.

Exposure to red light resulted in intensely colored wings, while exposure to green light resulted in dusky wings. Blue light and darkness led to paler colored wings.

In addition, the V. As these examples illustrate, there are many specific instances of environmental influences on gene expression. However, it is important to keep in mind that there is a very complex interaction between our genes and our environment that defines our phenotype and who we are.

Bartlett, J. The evolution of thalidomide and its IMiD derivatives as anticancer agents. Nature Reviews Cancer 4 , — doi Fraser, F. Thalidomide retrospective: What did we learn? Tetralogy 38 , — Morgan , T. Experimental Zoology New York, Macmillan, Silverman, W. A cautionary tale about supplemental oxygen: The albatross of neonatal medicine.

Pediatrics , — Stockard, C. The influence of external factors, chemical and physical, on the development of Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Experimental Zoology 4 , — Atavism: Embryology, Development and Evolution. Gene Interaction and Disease.

Genetic Control of Aging and Life Span. Genetic Imprinting and X Inactivation. Genetic Regulation of Cancer.

Obesity, Epigenetics, and Gene Regulation. Environmental Influences on Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulates Cell Differentiation. Genes, Smoking, and Lung Cancer. Negative Transcription Regulation in Prokaryotes. Operons and Prokaryotic Gene Regulation. Regulation of Transcription and Gene Expression in Eukaryotes. The Role of Methylation in Gene Expression. DNA Transcription. Reading the Genetic Code. Simultaneous Gene Transcription and Translation in Bacteria.

Chromatin Remodeling and DNase 1 Sensitivity. Chromatin Remodeling in Eukaryotes. RNA Functions. Internal and external environmental factors, like gender and temperature, influence gene expression.

Aa Aa Aa. Sex-Influenced and Sex-Limited Traits. Drugs and Chemicals. Temperature and Light. References and Recommended Reading Bartlett, J. Tetralogy 38 , — Morgan , T. Pediatrics , — Stockard, C.

Journal of Experimental Zoology 4 , — Sturtevant, H. The Himalayan rabbit case, with some considerations on multiple allelomorphs. American Naturalist 47 , — Article History Close. Keywords Keywords for this Article. Flag Inappropriate The Content is: Objectionable. Email your Friend. This content is currently under construction. Explore This Subject. Consequences of Gene Regulation. Gene Responses to Environment. Regulation of Transcription.

Transcription Factors. From DNA to Protein. Organization of Chromatin. Topic rooms within Gene Expression and Regulation Close.

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