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The paradoxes introduced by Foucault are stimulating, in that they produce a change in the way we look: how can one learn to research something which is not visible and at the same time is not hidden? It is interesting to note how the author uses expressions which lead us to think of the interdependence between the eye and the clarity revealed by this sight: "open one's eyes", objects that are "illuminated" and cast their "first light", "contours of light".
When we think we have understood the relation in which he seems to give privilege to the sense of sight, Foucault proposes a new challenge: he shows us to what extent the act of looking may, simultaneously with a clairvoyance of sight, "blind", "disturb" and even prevent one from seeing the object itself.
Thus, the author brings us into a game of compositions, into a game of looking and not-looking, a combination of looks, as in the movement of a kaleidoscope, which opens up our perception for several possibilities of images at sight.
Paul Veyne, who studies Foucault's work, writes:. At each moment, this world is what it is: the fact that its practices and its objects are rare , and that there is a void around them does not mean that there exist around them truths still not learned by men: the kaleidoscope images are not more true or more false than the previous ones VEYNE, , p. Thus, Foucault situates the object as something that is not hidden by a discourse, which may be read between the lines of a text or that may be glimpsed behind a closed curtain.
No, the object is definitely not that which is beyond and, for that reason, accessible only to a certain type of specialist. At the same time, the object of our research is not here, within our immediate reach and visible to the eye: it does not present itself at our feet, as a devoted liege. The object is the paradox itself: not hidden and not visible, or invisible for being on the very surface. Surface that in our view is not characterized by complexity, since we are always searching for the truth in the most recondite places, at the bottom of the deepest precipices, behind the closed curtain.
Foucault values the caution with the analysis of objects, so that we do not allow ourselves to be carried away by immediate interpretations:. Studying what is on the surface but is, for this very reason, complex, immerse in an interplay of relations and brings to surface a number of multiplicities: here is the object of research, which does not cease to question us.
Attentive to this object, to this paradoxical "in-between place", we shall start to scrutinize the conditions of production of the program we have chosen. Analysis of the conditions of appearance: denying origin. In the aforementioned excerpt of Foucault's work, we also encounter a broad questioning of the concepts of causality and linearity which directly guide us towards an essence, an origin.
In her study about discourse analysis in Foucault, Rosa Fischer reinforces the concept of discontinuity proposed by the archaeologist:. The dates and places we set do not mean departure points or definite data; rather, they are references connected to the conditions of production of a given discourse, which is stated differently, which is original in each one of such places and moments FISCHER, b, p. When studying an object of research, it is necessary, from the outset, to cease the search for the absolute and incontestable origin, and to face the multiplicity of conditions of the appearance of this kind of object.
These, in their turn, offer the opening to gaps in the discourse, to resistances. It is fundamental, therefore, to refer not to an essential point, or to causalities that might render favorable the appearance of something, but to be interested in the infinity of relations which coexist in a specific historical time.
Relations: this is the key-word when one speaks of conditions of production of a discourse or an object. In the epigraph above, Foucault distinguishes such relations into some types, such as similarity, proximity, distance, difference and transformation. Thinking about these relations, relating them to the object of analysis, to put into action the relations that clearly show multiplicities in the formation of the object: all of these are tasks which characterize the archaeological researcher.
And also ways to make it visible: what leads a commercial television station to run, at prime time, a fictional program in which the protagonists are black and young characters, inhabitants of a favela in Rio de Janeiro? How was it possible to show this program in late , on Globo TV Station and how was the program able to continue in the years that followed?
What does this change of place bring about in terms of new forms of visibility? The protagonists in Cidade dos Homens dress in school jackets, t-shirts and beach sandals. The setting for the story also differs in a contrasting way: in Cidade dos Homens , the favela and the street itself, including the Presidential Palace and a funk party, are used as privileged places for the events to unfold. Journalist Renata Petrocelli , in her review of the program, highlights:. The great merit of Cidade dos Homens lies precisely in the creation of two "heroes" who are far from being idealized; they are poor and marginalized, do not live up to the standards of beauty valued by the media and live under the pressure of drug traffic in the low-income communities p.
Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the strength the social movements have been building in Brazilian society, in particular the minority movements which fight for some equality in rights, such as the rural workers, the blacks, the handicapped, the women, the GLS Gays, Lesbians and Sympathizers Movement. Besides, movements recognized as political, founded many years ago, characterized by their protests and which fight for a fairer democracy, also begin now to be part of the television sphere.
According to Bucci , for one to acquire a status of citizen in our country, visibility through television screens is necessary. To what extent is television attentive to these social movements and in what way does it attempt to show and deal with these mobilizations? How are they transposed to this medium of communication?
As we cannot fail to recognize the legitimacy of such political and social movements, we also cannot fail to problematize the way of incorporating such mobilizations from their visibility through television and through the media, generally speaking.
According to Fischer ,. It is important to stress that all these questions around the way differences are dealt with are also related to ways of representation, to ways of stating, to ways of interpretation and communication. That is to say, the means of communication, the television in particular, have a huge responsibility with regard to the ways of naming the differences p.
One also speaks here of ways of narrating, ways of showing and including visibilities of such excluded people. And when giving it back, the product is often clothed in a marketable way. Here is a written excerpt of the mentioned memo, found in a book by Isleide Fontenelle :.
Vignettes of realism We don't want young people with a "sloppy" appearance, but we don't want baby-faced young people, either. They should look mature, intelligent and with a personality. We don't want red-haired people with freckled faces or blue-eyed blonds. We want to show what is real. For that reason, we have to meet the ethnical requirements: some blacks, some Latinos.
It's not meant to be a typical McDonald's ad p. What matters here is to think of such questions within the program analyzed: how can one establish the relations between the visibility of legitimacy of a social movement and the visibility of the domestication of this same movement?
In other words, it is legitimate to present ways to make visible a political and social movement of our times, but at the same time we question the way in which this visibility takes place. Stuart Hall , a theorist of contemporary culture, when speaking of post-modernism and the "margin" cultures, stresses:. Within culture, the margins, albeit still peripheral, have never been a space more productive than they are today, which does not happen simply due to the opening in the dominating spaces which may be taken by the people from outside.
This also results from cultural policies on the different, from struggles around the different, from the production of new identities and from the appearance of new subjects in the political and cultural arena p. At the same time that the author considers extremely important the opening of new spaces for protesting, something made possible by post-modernism, he also criticizes the ambiguous opening for difference and for the "margins", a kind of difference which ultimately makes no difference whatsoever, it is just "a touch of ethnicity", "a flavor of the exotic".
But, still, Hall considers that the cultural life has been modified by this kind of statement. We can proceed to analyze and problematize these conditions of visibility from some discussions on national cinema, from the times of Cinema Novo New Cinema to the present days, for it deals precisely with the "characters of margin" we are dealing with.
The boom in Brazilian cinema industry since the year has brought to surface questions concerning the "New Cinema Novo ", inspired in the movement that took place from , in Brazil, the Cinema Novo , whose most representative film-maker was Glauber Rocha.
The most important news in the recent production of Brazilian films is characterized by the whole production happening in Brazilian territory: from shooting to post-production, everything is being done in Brazil.
In this new phase of film production, similarly to what happened to Cinema Novo , characters that are representative of the minorities are again brought to scene: the nordestino inhabitant of the North-East region of the country , the residents of the city outskirts, the poor and the blacks, in products which deal, among others, with questions such as the im possibility of national identity.
A disconcerting diversity of Brazilian peoples, of singular minorities, of anonymous faces captured amidst the crowd is shown in the films of the trilogy as witnesses of a long process of exclusion p. As emphasized by Ivana Bentes when she criticizes what she defined as "the cosmetics of hunger", this is "a domestication of the most radical themes of culture and Brazilian cinema and Cinema Novo itself , in a folklore for export.
We may support the opinion that there are different ways to portray and speak of what has rarely been visible: at the same time that the mentioned films bring denunciation about, and present what "does not work" in our country acid criticism to the social inequality, to racial and sexual prejudice, to poverty , they also highlight the whole component of dream and fantasy which are part of this very universe.
The huge success of national cinema is made evident by the large number of movie-goers in the theaters across the country would that result simply from a glamorous aesthetics of hunger and poverty? It might be possible to say that there are different ways to portray questions that afflict the country: one of them would be through a non-crystallization of meaning about the minority characters and through the legitimacy of the conquests achieved by certain social groups, which does comprehend a form of aesthetics.
The other way would characterize itself by a "globalized" aesthetics in cinema originated in television? For the sake of exemplification, we may mention the ending of the series Cidade dos Homens in late , which may illustrate this process of "aestheticizing". The scene would indeed be romantic, as if it were not for a baby between their bodies, being breastfed.
But the ending has always to be the same, regardless of the differences presented and well-established during the episodes shown.
The ending has to be adapted to the television language, to become "palatable" for television, for the melodrama. The issue of recognition, argues the author, involves respect and self-esteem and is fundamental for the formation of national identity, be that at an individual level, be that at a collective one.
The author emphasizes the importance of understanding that " From this idea, Souza signals as an urgent political objective the attention to minorities and to minority cultures. In what way could this protection take place? In the public debate, sex education became one of the ideological tools used in political struggle.
The changes of governments were followed by changes in the concept of what sex education at schools should look like, when it should be launched and how it should be presented to students. In Poland, sex education was first included in the curriculum in and at the very beginning it was taught as part of other subjects such as biology, Polish language, and lessons with the class tutor. In , sex education ceased to be a separate subject and it was to be taught during lessons with the class tutor 19 hours by methodologically unprepared tutors.
Together with the political transitions, the concept of sex education at school changed as well. Since the secular approach has been replaced by a model rooted in the Catholic perception of the family and sexuality.
Unfortunately, no money was assigned for the implementation of this regulation. If we agree that sex life is not only an important element of relationship and love between two people, but it is also a health, ethical, legal, esthetic and social problem, the absence of sex education poses a threat to positive personality development, the ability to create healthy and satisfactory relationships and proper functioning in society.
Since sex education, being part of knowledge about a human being, is often neglected at school, the question arises: what does sex education as part of gender socialization look like at homes and in families see: Walker, ? Before we started our research on home-based sex education, there had been no research on that issue in Poland at all.
That is why we decided to analyze intergenerational relations in Polish families through the process of transmitting gender roles, focusing on the part of that process which is connected with sexual-ity. So the objective of the conducted research was to analyze socialization experiences of young men and women concerning home-based sex education.
Did the sex of the parents and the children affect the content and quality of messages addressed to the young people? How do young people evaluate the quality of home-based sex education? How do they perceive its impact on their self-acceptance, gender relations and emotions they derive from their sex life? All respondents were Polish, aged between 19 and Developmental psychology categorizes people at this age as young adults. One of the main developmental tasks of this stage of life is creating intimate relationships based on love, trust, and sex Havighurst, Young adults want to share their identities with others, they experiment with roles, look for close relationships, partnership and affiliation.
They are ready to take responsibilities and to develop devotion to a partner, connected with keeping intimate relationships with other people. This is the stage in which they can develop their sexuality in a relationship with a partner they love Levinson, ; Newman e Newman, The additional criteria for selecting the respondents among first-year university students was the fact that young people in Poland start their independent life when they leave their family homes to study, and they are physically separated from their parents.
This is the time when they often for the first time make their own choices and use schemes internalized during socialization. The results were analyzed from the qualitative and quantitative perspective, with a focus on qualitative analysis in this article. Using the mentioned above non-parametric test for the comparison between observed frequencies and expected frequencies of answers from the groups, all conclusions were drawn on the basis of significant differences that were found.
The dependence was measured with the use of V-Cramer coefficient. The answers to open-ended questions were analyzed with reference to qualitative content analysis. In the following part of the article we present our analysis, discussing achieved results with their interpretation, that is compatible with the logic of narration adopted in the whole article.
It is ended with the conclusions and reflections for the future studies. The research showed that in case of every fifth male respondent and every sixth female respondent, the topic of sex was never brought up by parents either mothers or fathers. Furthermore, the research proved that in Polish households, mothers are responsible for sex education of both sons and daughters, and that mothers more often than fathers started the topic of intimate life.
When they did, they spoke only with their sons. When it comes to the daughters, they hardly ever or never talked about sex with their fathers. It turned out that knowledge about sex is shared between women: the mother and the daughter.
In conversations with daughters, parents very seldom discussed the issues connected with legal regulations concerning sex life and forms of sexual activity, whereas while talking with sons, both mothers and fathers avoided the topic of communication in intimate relationships.
Analyzing the age of the respondents at which parents started talking with them about sex, the research showed that fathers started and finished sex education of their daughters when the girls were about 15 years old. What is interesting, this topic rarely came up as the girls were getting older.
Fathers started such conversations when their sons were 12 and continued through the entire age of puberty. When their sons were 17, fathers concentrated on contraception and sex initiation. Mothers started to talk with their daughters about sex when the girls were 10 years old and with sons when they were 12, and just carried on with this topic. For fathers, the sex of the child male or female made a bigger difference than for mothers, and therefore they, unlike mothers, selected the topics depending on whether the child was a girl or a boy.
In our research, we also intended to find out to whom the respondents addressed the problems and questions concerning sex life before their parents managed or not to initiate such conversations. The boys were more willing to talk about their problems with their girlfriends and fathers than mothers.
As we can see, the difference is quite significant. At the same time, sisters were more credible for the girls than brothers for the boys. The most variable and the greatest number of sources were offered to the girls by their mothers.
Only very few fathers recommended books to their daughters. Mothers most often recommended additional sources to their daughters. In the case of sons, there was little difference between sources recommended to them by their mothers and fathers.
The respondents themselves were also involved in looking for sources of information about sex life on their own. The girls looked for various available sources of information about sex more often. The women also quit often chose TV as a source of information, but they did not mention any erotic shows. The polled women not only had more opportunities to talk about different aspects of sexuality with their parents, but also these conversations were rated definitely higher by them than by the men.
The female respondents spontaneously pointed to their mothers only one pointed to her father as a person they could talk to if any questions or doubts concerning sex life cropped up. Female For sure my mom had a big influence, because I never talked about it with my dad. It was mom who showed me around sex life. For sure, she helped me a lot because I could ask questions and honestly talk about problems if I had any.
She is my confidant when it comes to the intimate part of my life. Many of the women emphasized that these talks also had moral value, especially in the context of warnings and prohibitions. Objectivity and reliability of the content was mentioned more seldom. Mothers tended to refer to their own experience and feelings.
The women emphasized many times that their mothers were more willing to talk about love than sex, or they presented their opinion on sex from an emotional perspective:. The men also emphasized openness and reliability as well as prohibitions, warnings and embarrassment if such talks took place. Keep me signed in. Your email? The email you used to create your account.
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